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Definition of Stud

Stud Image 1

Stud

An upright piece of lumber or steel in a wall, to which panels, siding, drywall, or other coverings are attached.



Related Terms:

Architect

One who has completed a course of study in building and design, and is licensed by the state as an architect. One who draws up plans and sometimes supervises the construction of homes.


Backing

Frame lumber installed between the wall studs to give additional support for drywall or an interior trim related item, such as handrail brackets, cabinets, and towel bars. In this way, items are screwed and mounted into solid wood rather than weak drywall that may allow the item to break loose from the wall. Carpet backing holds the pile fabric in place.


Bottom Plate

The lowest horizontal member of a wall which rests on the rough floor, to which the studding is nailed.


Cavity

The empty space between studs or joists to place insulation batts.


Face Staple

Stapling facing flange to the front side of a stud or rafter, along the 1½" dimension.



Inset Staple

Stapling to the inside portion of the stud or rafter.


Post-And-Beam

Wall construction in which beams are supported by heavy posts rather than many smaller studs.


Stud Image 2

Top Plate

The horizontal member nailed to the top of the studding of a wall.


Fiat Money

Fiat MOney is paper currency made legal tender by law or fiat. It is not backed by gold or silver and is not necessarily redeemable in coin. this practice has had widespread use for about the last 70 years. If governments produce too much of it, there is a loss of confidence. Even so, governments print it routinely when they need it. The value of fiat mOney is dependent upon the performance of the economy of the country which issued it. Canada's currency falls into this category.


Group Life Insurance

this is a very common form of life insurance which is found in employee benefit plans and bank mortgage insurance. In employee benefit plans the form of this insurance is usually One year renewable term insurance. The cost of this coverage is based on the average age of everyOne in the group. Therefore a group of young people would have inexpensive rates and an older group would have more expensive rates.
Some people rely on this kind of insurance as their primary coverage forgetting that group life insurance is a condition of employment with their employer. The coverage is not portable and cannot be taken with you if you change jobs. If you have a change in health, you may not qualify for new coverage at your new place of employment.
Bank mortgage insurance is also usually group insurance and you can tell this by virtue of the fact that you only receive a certificate of insurance, and not a complete policy. The only form in which bank mortgage insurance is sold is reducing term insurance, matching the declining mortgage balance. The only beneficiary that can be chosen for this kind of insurance is the bank. In both cases, employee benefit plan group insurance and bank mortgage insurance, the coverage is not guaranteed. this means that coverage can be cancelled by the insurance company underwriting that particular plan, if they are experiencing excessive claims.


Intestate

this means dying without a will, in which case the provincial laws of the province in which the death occurred apply to the manner in which assets will be distributed. In other words, if you don't write your own will, the government will do it for you after your death and it may not be as you would have wished.


Money Laundering

this is the process by which "dirty mOney" generated by criminal activities is converted through legitimate businesses into assets that cannot be easily traced back to their illegal origins.


Reinstatement

this is the restoration of a lapsed life insurance policy. The life insurance company will require evidence of continuing good health and the payment of all past due premiums plus interest.


Replacement

this subject of replacement of existing policies is covered because sometimes existing life insurance policies are unnecessarily replaced with new coverage resulting in a loss of valuable benefits. If someOne suggests replacing your existing coverage, insist on having a comparison disclosure statement completed.
The most important policies to examine in detail are those which were issued in Canada prior to December 2, 1982. If you have a policy of this vintage with a significant cash surrender value, you may want to consider keeping it. It has special tax advantages over policies issued after December 2, 1982.
Basically, the difference is this. The cash surrender value of a pre December, 1982 policy can be converted to an annuity in accordance with the settlement options in the policy and as a result, the tax on any policy gain can be spread over the duration of the annuity. Since only the interest element of the annuity payment will be taxed, there will be less of a tax impact on the annuitant. Policies issued after December 2, 1982 which have their cash surrender value annuitized trigger a disposition and the annuitant must pay tax on the total policy gain immediately. If you still decide to replace existing coverage, don't cancel what you have until the new coverage has been issued.


Estate Planning

An insurance program designed to provide funds for insured's dependents upon death of the insured, and to also conserve, as much as possible, the personal assets that the insured wants to bequeath to heirs.


Paid-Up Additions

A type of insurance policy or annuity in which the owner receives dividends, typically increases the death.


Stud Image 1

Whole Life

CompOnent that provides life coverage during the insured's life.


Agreement of Purchase and Sale

A legal agreement that offers a certain price for a home. The offer may be firm (no conditions attached), or conditional (certain conditions must be fulfilled before the deal can be closed).



Earnest money

A deposit made by potential home buyers during negotiations with the seller. The sum shows a seller that a buyer is serious about purchasing the property. The mOney usually is counted toward the down payment.


Allowance

A sum of mOney set aside in the construction contract for items which have not been selected and specified in the construction contract. For example, selection of tile as a flooring may require an allowance for an underlayment material, or an electrical allowance which sets aside an amount of mOney to be spent on electrical fixtures.


Area Walls

Corrugated metal or concrete barrier walls installed around a basement window to hold back the earth.


Balloon Framed Wall

Framed walls (generally over 10' tall) that run the entire vertical length from the floor sill plate to the roof. this is dOne to eliminate the need for a gable end truss.


Building Code

A comprehensive set of laws that controls the construction or remodeling of a home or other structure.


Built-Up Roof

A roofing composed of three to five layers of asphalt felt laminated with coal tar, pitch, or asphalt. The top is finished with crushed slag or gravel. Generally used on flat or low-pitched roofs.


Bull Nose Drywall

Rounded drywall corners.


Circuit Breaker

A device which looks like a switch and is usually located inside the electrical panel or circuit breaker box. It is designed to (1) shut of the power to portions or all of the house and (2) to limit the amount of power flowing through a circuit (measured in amperes). 110 volt household circuits require a fuse or circuit breaker with a rating of 15 or a maximum of 20 amps. '220' volt circuits may be designed for higher amperage loads e.g. a hot water heater may be designed for a 30 amp load and would therefore need a 30 amp fuse or breaker. also see GFI


Construction Documents

All drawings, specifications and addenda associated with a specific construction project.


Stud Image 2

Framer

The carpenter contractor that installs the lumber and erects the Frame, flooring system, interior walls, backing, trusses, rafters, decking, installs all beams, stairs, soffits and all work related to the wood structure of the home. The Framer builds the home according to the blueprints and must comply with local building codes and regulations.



Gable End Wall

The triangular end of an exterior wall above the eaves formed under a gable roof.


GFI -See Ground Fault Current Interrupter



Ground Fault Current Interrupter

An electrical device used to prevent injury from contact with faulty electrical appliances and faulty wiring
electrical shocks. GFIs should not be confused with AFIs, the later are designed to prevent electrical fires. GFIs are required in new home bathrooms, kitchen, garage, out of doors and in other locations where One might be in contact with a grounded surface or body of water and an electrical appliance. Most GFI's are located in the receptacle itself or a curcuit breaker and can be identified by the presence of a 'test' and a 'reset' button.


Interior Finish



aterial used to cover the interior framed areas of walls and ceilings



Knee Wall

A wall-like structure that supports roof rafters.


Lap Siding

Slightly wedge-shaped boards used as horizontal siding in a lapped pattern over the exterior sheathing. Varies in butt thickness from ½ to ¾ inch and in widths up to 12".


Load-Bearing Wall

Includes all exterior walls and any interior wall that is aligned above a support beam or girder. Normally, any wall that has a double horizontal top plate.


Metal Insulation Support

16" or 24" wire rod or crisscrossed wire to hold floor insulation in place.


Nonbearing Wall

A wall supporting no load other than its own weight.


Siding

See Lap siding


Trombe Wall

A passive solar wall, usually masonry or concrete, used for passing heat from One room (like a sun room or solar garden room) to another.


Wall Out

When a painter spray paints the interior of a home.


Zone

The section of a building that is served by One heating or cooling loop because it has noticeably distinct heating or cooling needs. Also, the section of property that will be watered from a lawn sprinkler system.


Zone Valve

A device, usually placed near the heater or cooler, which controls the flow of water or steam to parts of the building; it is controlled by a zOne thermostat.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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